Study Guide & Documents
The academic year is divided in two semesters. Each semester includes time for studies, time for individual studies and exams and holidays (Academic Calendar).
Teaching System and Evaluation
Students can expect more or less equal "mix" of theoretical lectures, seminars and practical work from most study programmes. Although in some cases a permanent evaluation process may operate, the majority of the material learnt is assessed at the end of the term/year in the course of written and oral examinations for each of the attended lectures and seminars. Up to six oral or written examinations are usually held at the end of each semester during the three-week examination period. Students are examined by a single examiner or by an examination board. Candidates who fail in a course (term) examination can generally try to take it repeatedly during the examination period or afterwards. If the student is successful in all the examinations of the examination period, he/she is allowed to continue with the next term.
Depending on the period of their stay, foreign students may participate in this assessment process alongside with the regular LLU students, or a different formula will be planned for them by the LLU professors. At any rate, their LLU grades will fully count towards the result of their study at home.
Latvia University of Agriculture has a ten - point grading system, where 10 is the maximum and 4 is the pass mark. The explanation of the grading system and approximate comparison to ECTS grades are given bellow:
|Achievement level||Grade||Meaning||Approx. ECTS grade|
|very high||10||with distinction||Knowledge of the students is substantially higher than the estimated normal level||A|
|very high||9||excellent||Knowledge of the students is higher than the estimated normal level||A|
|high||8||very good||Knowledge corresponds to the highest expected level||B|
|high||7||good||The student has mastered the subject deeply and with understanding, is progressing within the expected limits, but makes minor mistakes||C|
|medium||6||almost good||The student has generally succeeded in the course within the required limits, but he or she is either merely reproducing the knowledge rather than actively using it, or making more substantial mistakes||D|
|medium||5||satisfactory||Awarded to students, who are progressing within the limits of their individual abilities, generally are not behind the appropriate age group, but make substantial mistakes and reproduce the facts rather than analyse them||E|
|medium||4||almost satisfactory||The very last positive grade. Awarded to students who do their best but still make serious mistakes and just reproduce most of the relevant material||E/FX|
|low||3-1||unsatisfactory||Marks of different levels for students whose record is below the expected||Fail|
Students participating in any exchange program will receive full credits for all academic work successfully carried out at LLU and will be able to transfer these academic credits on the bases of a formal agreement between LLU and home university.
When the student has successfully completed the study programme previously agreed between the home and the host institutions (LLU) and returns to the home institution, credit transfer will take place, and the student will continue the study course at the home institution without any loss of theme or credit. If, on the other hand the student decides to stay at the host institution and to take a degree there, he or she may have to adapt the study course due to the legal, institutional and departmental rules in the host country institution and department.
Students are selected for exchange studies based on rules of each exchange program that is administrated by home university.
To make the higher education comparable LLU uses the ETCS system.
About European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)
ECTS, the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, was developed by the Commission of the European Communities in order to provide common procedures to guarantee academic recognition of studies abroad. It provides a way of measuring and comparing learning achievements, and transferring them from one institution to another.
The ECTS system is based on the principle of mutual trust and confidence between the participating higher education institutions.
The few rules of ECTS, concerning information (on courses available), agreement (between the home and host institutions) and the use of Credit Points (to indicate student workload) are set out to reinforce this mutual trust and confidence.
ECTS credits are a numerical value allocated to course units to describe the student workload required to complete the courses. They reflect the quantity of work each course unit requires in relation to the total quantity of work necessary to complete a full year of academic study at the institution, which is, lectures, practical work, seminars, fieldwork, private study - in the library or at home - and examinations or other assessment activities.
ECTS is thus based on a full student workload and not limited to contact hours only. At Latvia University of Agriculture degree programmes are designed in a way that one academic year corresponds to 40 credit points (local). This comparing to the ECTS system, where studies are taking up a full academic year correspond to 60 ECTS. Thus, one credit point in LLU awards 1.5 ECTS credits.
ECTS Grading Scale
Examination and assessment results are usually expressed in grades. There are many different grading systems in Europe. The ECTS grading scale was developed in order to help institutions interpret the grades awarded. ECTS grades are an alphabetical value allocated to courses to describe the quality of the student's performance in a course, as a complement to the credits awarded. Note that the ECTS grade provides additional information on the student's performance to that provided by the institution's grade, but does not replace the local grade (the comparision see above in the table).
B very good
F fail (some more work required before the credit can be awarded)
FX fail (considerable further work is required)